Thursday, May 21, 2020

Benefits And Limitations Of Renewable Energy Sources

In the world that we live, the prospects for renewable energy will increase in the European union as a whole, and in the UK in particular, in the coming decades. Renewable energy sources are already providing a significant proportion of the world’s primary energy, and it is likely to be providing a much greater proportion of the world’s energy by the second half of the 21th century. The European Union countries may do something to increase 20% of all energy from Renewable sources by 2020 to the society.This essay will outline the benefits and limitations of two common renewable energy sources, then, it will discuss how the topic suggestion is realistic in the UK context, and finally, what need to be done to increase renewable energy to 20%†¦show more content†¦John Twidel and Tony wair ,2005 in renewable energy resources points out that It has become one of the fundamental principles for policy in the 21st century. The politicians, industrialists, environmental ists, economists, and theologians, are affirmed in the world the principle as they seek international, national, and local cooperation. However, reaching specific agreed policies and actions is proving much tougher! In the international context, the word progress relate to amendment in quality of life, including improving standards of living in less developed countries. The aim of sustainable development is to achieve this aim while safeguarding the ecological processes upon which life depends. Locally, progressive businesses seek a positive treble under line, (a positive offering to the economic, social, and environmental well-being of the community). We know that many changes in social patterns are related to energy supplies. We may expect further changes to occur as renewable energy systems become even more widespread. The influence of modern science and technology ensures that there are considerable improvements to older technologies, and subsequently standards of living can be expected to rise, especially in rural and previously less developed

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Marketing Strategies Used By Jl Racing - 944 Words

When a small business decides to take sales on the international level there are many risks and rewards in doing so. To be successful they should look at challenges that they might incur along the road in addition developing a plan on how to overcome these challenges. Furthermore the correct marketing strategy when entering into new markets is key on creating brand recognition and make the customer experience satisfying in order to generate repeat business and marketing through word of mouth. Therefore, when a company’s research is complete and the best route has been chosen to enter into international markets a small business can lower risk and increase their awareness to be successful. In this assignment I researched challenges of small business conducting business internationally, in addition to discussing in depth the marketing strategies used by JL Racing. Finally, discuss the effects of international sales on JL Racing’s domestic business. There are many challenges for small companies when doing business internationally for example JL Racing had a hard time understanding the buying habits in Europe. In addition to entering into markets to who the customers have already established relationships with other vendors or when a few individuals makes the decision for the whole rowing club in which and sales representative would need to know the bidding process. Furthermore, the difficulty of the owners of a small business entering into business internationally wearing allShow MoreRelatedStrategy Safari by Mintzberg71628 Words   |  287 PagesSTRATEGY SAFARI A GUIDED TOURTHROUGH THE WILDS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT HENRY MINTZBERG BRUCE AHLSTRAND JOSEPH LAMPEL T H E FREE PRESS NEW YORK aJaiz. u.frmiu/i  «...* „.;i†¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¢/ . †¢ . . †¢. »Ã¢â‚¬ ¢.. . .. †¢..†¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¢.-.†¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¢a/itiktSii^i THE FREE PRESS A Division of Simon Schuster Inc. 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 Copyright  © 1998 by Henry Mintzberg, Ltd., Bruce Ahlstrand, and Joseph Lampel All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. THERead MoreState and Local Tax Outline42910 Words   |  172 Pagestaxes is undue burden on interstate commerce. Not so for income. Lesser compliance burdens. Physical presence poor measuring stick of an entity s true nexus with a state in today s business world. 12. Significant economic presence test - test used to determine of whether a substantial nexus exists for CC purposes. Incorporates due process purposeful direction towards a state while examining the degree to which a company has exploited a local market. Purposeful availment is analyzed as it

Presence of Exim Bank in Saarc Region Free Essays

string(79) " to accelerated the process of economic ; social development in member states\." History of SAARC The concept of setting up a regional co-operational in the South Asian Region was first mooted by the late President of Bangladesh, Ziaur-Rahman on May 2, 1980. Before this, the idea of regional cooperation in South Asia was discussed in conferences of Asian Regional conference, New Delhi in April 1947, the Baguio Conference in Philippines in May 1950, and the Colombo Power Conference in April 1954. urther in the late 70s, SAARC nations agreed to create a trade bloc consisting of South Asian countries. We will write a custom essay sample on Presence of Exim Bank in Saarc Region or any similar topic only for you Order Now The idea of regional cooperation in South Asia was again mooted in May 1980as a result, the foreign secretaries of the seven countries met for the first time in Colombo in April 1981. The Committee of the Whole, which met in Colombo in August 1985, identified five broad areas for regional cooperation. New areas of cooperation were added in the following years. Hence the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was created in 1985 with eight member countries in SAARC namely Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. It also has nine observers, namely China, EU, Iran, Republic of Korea, Australia, Japan, Mauritius, Myanmar and USA. The objectives of the Association as defined in the Charter are: * to promote the welfare of the people of South Asia and to improve their quality of life; * to accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region and to provide all individuals the opportunity to live in dignity and to realize their full potential; * to promote and strengthen selective self-reliance among the countries of South Asia; * to contribute to mutual trust, understanding and appreciation of one another’s problems; * to promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in the economic, social, cultural, technical and scientific fields; * to strengthen cooperation with other developing countries; * to strengthen cooperation among themselves in international forums on matters of common interest; and * to cooperate with international and regional organisations with similar aims and purposes. The principles of SAARC are: * Respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, polit ical equality and independence of all members states * Non-interference in the internal matters is one of its objectives * Cooperation for mutual benefit * All decisions to be taken unanimously and need a quorum of all eight members * All bilateral issues to be kept aside and only multilateral(involving many countries) issues to be discussed without being prejudiced by bilateral issues Economic Agenda of SAARC The main economic agenda of SAARC include: ) SAARC Preferential Trading Agreement (SAPTA) The Agreement on SAPTA was signed on 11 April 1993 and entered into force on 7 December 1995. The Agreement envisaged promoting and sustaining mutual trade and economic cooperation within the SAARC region through exchange of concessions. b) South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) The Agreement on SAFTA was signed on 6 January 2004 during the Twelfth SAARC Summit in Islamabad. The Agreement entered into force on 1 January 2006. c) South Asian Economic Union The Eleventh Summit (Kathmandu, 4-6 January 2002) provided further impetus to the regional economic cooperation to give effect to the shared aspirations for a more prosperous South Asia. At the Summit, the leaders agreed to accelerate cooperation in the core areas of trade, finance and investment to realise the goal of an integrated South Asian economy in a step-by-step manner. They also agreed to the vision of a phased and planned process eventually leading to a South Asian Economic Union. Economic Profile of the SAARC Member Countries In Afghanistan, real domestic product (GDP) is estimated to have reached 13. 9% in FY2007, owing to a strong recovery in agricultural production. Industry and services recorded dynamic growth of 13. 3% and 12. 4%, respectively. Construction was the main driver of industrial growth. In Bangladesh, GDP growth in FY2007 (ended June 2007) stood at 6. % underpinned by steady expansion in manufacturing and continued buoyancy in services, on the base of rising domestic and external demand. Secretariat of SAARC The Secretariat of SAARC is located in Kathmandu has been established on 16 January 1987 inaugurated by Late King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal headed by a Secretary General. The Secretary General is appointed by the Council of Ministers from Member Countries in alphabetical order for a term of three-years assisted by the Professional and the General Services Staff, and also an appropriate number of functional units called Divisions assigned to Directors on deputation from Member States. The Secretariat has been entrusted with the function of coordination and monitoring the implementation of activities, arranging for meetings, and serveing as a channel of communication between the Association and its Member States as well as other regional organizations. The setting up of SAARC Secretariat involved inking a Memorandum of Understanding between the Foreign Ministers of member countries on 17 November 1986 at Bangalore, India which contained various clauses concerning the role, structure and administration of the SAARC Secretariat as well as the powers of the Secretary-General. Regional Centres of SAARC There are various regional centres established by SAARC Secretariat in member states so as to ensure smooth working of the SAARC functions. The regional Centres covering Agriculture, Tuberculosis, Documentation, Meteorological research, and Human Resource Development have been established in different SAARC capitals: SAIC (Dhaka, 1998) STC (Kathmandu, 1992) SDC (New Delhi, 1994) SMRC (Dhaka, 1995) SHRDC (Islamabad, 1999) SCC (Kandy, 2004) SCZMC (Male, 2004) and SIC (Kathmandu, 2004). In addition, three new regional centres covering Culture, Coastal Zones Management, and Information are being established. India- SAARC Relationship The countries of South Asia were compelled to forge a regional grouping due to universal realization among the third world countries. – india with her experience of initial efforts to organize the Asian community ; the conflicts in the region welcomed the initiative of Bangladesh in 1980. for an association of south Asian namely India, Pakistan, Sri lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives. SAARC provides a platform for the peoples of south asia to work together in a spirit of friendshi p , trust ; understanding . – it aims to accelerated the process of economic ; social development in member states. You read "Presence of Exim Bank in Saarc Region" in category "Essay examples" – the initial years of SAARC were marked by significant political developments in the world culminating in the demise of cold war ; the disremberment of the soviet union. – therefore, when the proposal for the regional co-operation was made by bangladesh india could not reject the proposal. – as this regional cooperation could play a useful role in india’s own regional policy. – india is the biggest with sharing the borders with all 6 countries of the region. – from politicla to economic level, india its neighbors have many disputes. inida is also having the stable democracy, has a strong military machine, a large scientific technical manpower a vast industries infrastructure makes it different from other countries. – the end of cold war has provided greater leeway to india to promote her perception of south Africa regionalism through SAARC. – india has become the heart of saarc in fact constitutes the major source of both GDP, trade capital flows within saarc/region. – the reluctance of india other south asian countries to turn saarc into forum for resolving major regional disputes hampers saarc ability to deal with many of the south asia’s economic ; political problems. Mekong-Ganga Cooperation : it was established on nov 10 2000 at vientiane in the 1st MGC ministerial-meeting. – it comprises of 6 members countries namely, thailand, myanmar,cambodia, lao PDR, vietnam ; india. – they emphses on 4 areas of cooperation , which are : tourism, culture, education , transportation linkages in order to be solid foundation for future trade ; investment cooperation in the region. Cooperation Mechanisms : – the working mechanism for MGC consists of the annual ministrial meetin g, the senior official’s meeting, 5 working group namely : * working group on tourism (thailand) * working group on education , HRD (india) * working group on culture (cambodia) working group on communication transportation (lao PDR) * working group on paln of actions (vietnam). – with his cooperation india has extended its footprints in asean region under the geostartegic back drop. – india has added powerful cultural dimension to its economic diplomacy by encouraging business contacts between the people residing on the banks Summits Summits which are the highest authority in SAARC, are supposed to be held annually. The country hosting the Summit also holds the Chair of the Association. Bangladesh hosted the Thirteenth Summit in November 2005 at Dhaka as the Chairperson of the Association. India will host the Fourteenth SAARC Summit in 2007 as its Chairman. South Asia’s regional cooperation, international political and economic environment, poverty alleviation, advancing economic cooperation, funding mechanisms, security of small states, combating, terrorism, social, natural disasters and environmental challenges as an agenda for third decade of SAARC was also discussed in the Thirteenth Summit. Enhancing people-to-people contact and cultural cooperation, political cooperation and external linkages of SAARC was also discussed. SAARC member states welcomed the request by the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan for membership and invited Afghanistan as a member, subject to the completion of formalities. SAARC member states also agreed in principle with the desire of the People’s Republic of China and Japan to be associated as observers. The Agreement on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Customs Matters Establishment of SAARC Arbitration Council, and the Limited 136 Pakistan Journal of History Culture, Vol. XXVII/2 (2006) Agreement on Avoidance of Double Taxation and Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters were signed during the thirteenth SAARC Summit The Council of Ministers comprising Foreign Ministers, meets at least twice a year. Its functions include formulating policy, reviewing progress of regional cooperation, identifying new areas of cooperation and establishing additional mechanisms that may be necessary. The Standing Committee comprising Foreign Secretaries, monitors and coordinates SAARC programmes of cooperation, approves projects including their financing and mobilizes regional and external resources. It meets as often as necessary and reports to the Council of Ministers. The Association also convenes meetings at Ministerial Level on specialized themes. The Committee on Economic Cooperation consisting of Secretaries of Commerce oversees regional cooperation in the economic field. During the Twelfth Summit in Islamabad, the SAARC Social Charter was signed in order to address social issues such as population stabilization, empowerment of women, youth mobilization, human resource development, promotion of health and nutrition, and protection of children, which are keys to the welfare and well-being of all South Asians. South Asian States have adopted Conventions on the Suppression of Terrorism (including Additional Protocol signed in January 2004 in Islamabad), Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, Trafficking in Women and Children, and Child Welfare in South Asia. An Agreement on Food Security Reserve is also in place. During the 12th SAARC summit held in Islamabad the leaders of South Asia reiterated their commitment to form South Asian Economic Union (SAEU). If formed, it will pave the way for more ambitious — but entirely achievable — goals such as a Free Trade Area, an Economic Union, open borders, and a common currency for the region. As President Pervez Musharraf said, â€Å"we must expand SAARC charter to discuss bilateral issues at the regional level. There can be no development in the absence of peace. There can be no peace, so long as political issues and disputes continue to fester. †The Twelfth Summit renewed the urgency to deal with poverty in the region. For this purpose, the Summit directed the Independent South Asian Commission on Poverty Alleviation (ISACPA) to submit to the next Summit a comprehensive and realistic blueprint setting out SAARC 14 President Pervez Musharraf’s statement reported by M. Aftab, â€Å"Can Safta lead to South Asian Economic Union? † The News, 19 January, 2004. SAARC: Origin, Growth, Potential and Achievements 137 Development Goals for the next five years in the areas of poverty alleviation, education, health and environment. The Governors of the Central Banks of member states under the auspices of SAARCFINANCE meet regularly to consider cooperation in financial matters. For strengthening cooperation in information and media related activities of the Association, the Heads of National Television and Radio Organizations of member countries meet annually. Similarly, the SAARC Audio-Visual Exchange (SAVE) Committee disseminates information both on SAARC and its Member States through regular Radio and TV Programmes. In the field of education, the Member States cooperate through the forums of SACODiL (SAARC Consortium on Open and Distance Learning) and Heads of Universities Grants Commission/Equivalent Bodies. Memoranda of Understanding have been signed to promotecollaboration with UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development), UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund), UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), UNESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific), UNDCP (United Nations Drug Control Programme), ITU (International Telecommunications Union), APT (Asia Pacific Telecommunity), WHO (World Health Organization), UNIFEM (Untied Nations Fund for Women), CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency), EC (European Commission), PTB (German Metrology Institute), WB (World Bank), ADB (Asian Development Bank), UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS) and SACEP (South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme). Regular dialogues with other Regional Organizations such as ASEAN (Association of South-East Asian Nations), ECO (Economic Cooperation Organization) and PIFS (Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat) are held with a view to promotin g cooperation among sub-regional organizations. The Association promotes interaction on multilateral issues of common concern to its members and has identified areas in which collective positions could be projected at international forums. These include trade, finance, environment, agriculture, women and children, information and telecommunications. Beyond official linkages, SAARC also encourages and facilitates cooperation in private sector through the SAARC Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SCCI), which is a SAARC Apex Body. Other such bodies are SAARCLAW and South Asian Federation of Accountants (SAFA). In addition, the status of SAARC Recognized Bodies has been accorded to professional groups in South Asia including Architects, Management 138 http://www. nihcr. edu. pk Pakistan Journal of History Culture, Vol. XXVII/2 (2006) Development Institutions, University Women, Town Planners, Cardiologists, Dermatologists, Teachers, Writers, Insurance Organizations, Diploma Engineers, Radiological and Surgical Care Societies. The Association of Speakers and Parliamentarians enjoy special recognition by the Heads of State or Government. Achievements Several factors such as political, economic, security and potentiality of mutual economic benefit through regionalism seem to have influenced President Ziaur Rahman’s thinking about establishing a regional organization in South Asia. 15 SAARC’s existence, however, has enabled South Asian political leaders to meet regularly and carry on informal discussions to address their mutual problems. This is no mean achievement given South Asia’s past history and low level of interaction among South Asian countries since their independence. Informal talks among the leaders at regularly held SAARC meetings have led to inter-elite reconciliation on many sensitive issues, producing some noteworthy results in South Asia. The informal talks between the Indian and Pakistani Prime Ministers at the second SAARC Summit meeting at Bangalore in November 1986 led to the diffusion of tension between the two countries on the issue of India’s military exercise, Operation Brasstacks, on the Indo-Pakistan border, and the India-Sri Lanka talks at the 1987 SAARC foreign ministers’ meeting led to their accord on the Tamil problem. As a result of an informal meeting and discussion between Prime Minister of India and Pakistan, Narasimha Rao and Nawaz Sharif, at Davos (Switzerland), in 1992, the Pakistani government took action to prevent the move of the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) to cross the ceasefire line in Kashmir later that year. The Davos meeting was possible because of an earlier informal agreement between the two leaders at the sixth SAARC Summit meeting at Colombo in December 1991. Given this utility of SAARC, can the organization grow or expand its role in the coming decades? The Heads of State or Government during the Ninth SAARC Summit agreed for the first time that a process of informal political consultations would prove useful in promoting peace, stability, amity and accelerated socio-economic cooperation in the region. The leaders reiterated this intent during their Tenth and Eleventh Summits in Colombo and Kathmandu respectively also. The Agreement on SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement (SAPTA) was signed in 1993 and four rounds of trade negotiations have been concluded. With the objective of moving towards a South Asian Economic Union (SAEU), the Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) was signed during the Twelfth Summit in Islamabad in January 2004. SAFTA may enter into force by the end of the year 2006. The Association has carried out Regional Studies on trade, manufactures and services, environment and poverty alleviation, SAFTA and Customs matters. Since its inception in 1984 there have also been serious differences among member countries over the aims and functioning of SAARC. 6 Such differences have been pronounced in verbal bickerings in several SAARC meetings. This is in the face of the fact that closer social, economic and cultural ties (the espoused ideals of SAARC) are considered the one and only hope for building regional cooperation efforts in South Asia in the coming years. Indeed, incr easing rationalization of world trade and the fluidity of the emerging global system has increased trade within each trade bloc and those countries that do not belong to any trade blocs are likely to be the losers. 17 This also provides a strong rationale for sustaining the SAARC vis-a-vis future trade prospects of South Asia. The assumption that peace can be achieved through SAARC without addressing the political problems of the region has neither een able to cultivate peace nor to invigorate the SAARC process successfully. Though since its very inception it has been regularly able to hold Summit meetings yet there have been interruptions in 16 The main point of debate hinges on the Charter of SAARC which does not allow bilateral issues to be discussed at the regional level summit diplomacy. 17 B. S. Shreekantaradhya, â€Å"Globalisation of Indian Economy: Strategies and Constraints,† S. Murty, The Changing Indian Economic Order (New Delhi: Indus Economic Profile of the SAARC Member Countries In Afghanistan, real domestic product (GDP) is estimated to have reached 13. % in FY2007, owing to a strong recovery in agricultural production. Industry and services recorded dynamic growth of 13. 3% and 12. 4%, respectively. Construction was the main driver of industrial growth. In Bangladesh, GDP growth in FY2007 (ended June 2007) stood at 6. 5% underpinned by steady expansion in manufacturing and continued buoyancy in services, on the base of rising domestic and external demand (Figure 1). Figure 1: Economic Growth in SAARC Region – 2007 (percent) Source: Asian Development Outlook 2008, ADB Source: Direction of Trade Statistics Year Book 2007, IMF. Bhutan’s real GDP in FY2007 (ended June 2007) is estimated to have grown by 17. %. This was driven by growth in power sector (with a GDP share of 11. 3% in FY2006) resulting from the commissioning of the 1,020 megawatt (MW) Tala hydropower station, which has been phased in since July 2006. In India, the impressive economic performance of the past few years continued with real GDP growth at 9. 0% in 2007-08, as compared to 9. 6% in the previous year. The real GDP of Maldives grew by 6. 6% in 2007, reverting to its historical growth path after the post-tsunami contraction in 2005. Tourism, the leading sector with around one-thi rd share of GDP, grew by 10. 0%. Real GDP growth of Nepal moderated to 2. 3% in FY2007 (endedmid July 2007) from 3. 1% in FY2006, resulting from subdued performances of agriculture and industry. Real GDP growth of Pakistan continued to remain strong for the fourth consecutive year registering a growth of 7. 0% in FY2007 (ended June 2007). During 2007, Sri Lanka continued to register strong real GDP growth of 6. 7%, as compared to 7. 7% in 2006. Trend in Foreign Trade and Trade Policies SAARC’s Global Trade During the year 2000 to 2006, the total exports of SAARC countries have increased from US$ 63. 5 billion to US$ 161. 4 billion. The total imports of SAARC countries also have increased from US$ 79. 5 billion in 2000 to US$ 255. 3 billion in 2006. Among the SAARC countries, India led both in terms of exports and imports, followed by Pakistan and Bangladesh. Intra-SAARC Trade Total intra-SAARC exports have increased from US$ 2. 8 billion in 2000 to US$ 10. 8 billion in 2006, registering nearly a four-fold rise during the period. As a result, intra-SAARC exports, as a proportion of SAARC global exports, have risen from 4. 5% in 2000 to 6. 7% in 2006. Intra-exports of the SAARC countries were dominated by India, followed by Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The total intra-SAARC imports have also increased more than three-fold from US$ 3. 0 billion in 2000 to US$ 9. 6 billion in 2006. Intra-SAARC imports ere dominated by Sri Lanka, followed by India. Figure 2 depicts the trend in intra-SAARC trade (exports plus imports) vis-a-vis trend in SAARC’s global trade. A comparison of the trends would highlight the buoyancy in intra- SAARC trade especially after 2003, as compared to SAARC’s global trade. Trade Policies Trade liberalis ation in South Asia started with a series of sweeping reforms in Sri Lanka in 1977/78. For the rest of South Asia, the 1980s and 1990s saw substantial reductions of tariffs and phasing out of quantitative restrictions (QRs), along with liberalisation of the exchange regimes. Developments in SAARC Trade Integration SAARC Preferential Trade Agreement SAPTA) was signed at the seventh SAARC summit in 1993, in Dhaka. The agreement provides a framework and institutional base for trade liberalisation and economic cooperation between the seven SAARC member countries. The agreement provides for the exchange of concessions between SAPTA members on tariffs, para-tariff and non-tariff barriers. It envisages four basic approaches to the exchange of trade preferences: (1) product-by-product; (2) across- the-board; (3) sectoral; and (4) â€Å"direct trade† measures. South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) extends the scope of SAPTA to include trade facilitation elements and switches the ta riff liberalisation rocess from a positive to a negative list approach. Foreign Direct Investment in the SAARC Region Private capital flows to South Asia was largely driven by India, which received the majority of capital flows to the region. The total FDI inflows into the SAARC region have increased from US$ 5. 6 billion in 2000 to US$ 22. 3 billion in 2006. FDI outflows from the SAARC region have increased from US$ 350 mn in 2000 to US$ 9. 8 billion in 2006. India’s Trade and Investment Relations with SAARC Trade Relations India’s exports to the SAARC region increased from US$ 2. 8 billion in 2002-03 to US$ 6. 5 billion in 2006-07 (Figure 3). Amongst the SAARC members, Sri Lanka is the largest arket, accounting for 35% of India’s Blue Magenta Black Blue Magenta Black Brief on New Publications SAARC: An Emerging Trade Bloc Exim Bank : Research Brief No. 38, June 2008 3 Figure 3: Trend in India’s Trade in SAARC Region (US$ mn) Source: Ministry of Commerce and Industry, GOI total exports in the SAARC region during 2006-07, followed by Bangladesh (25%), Pakistan (21%) and Nepal (14%). An analysis of the trend in India’s exports to the SAARC region during the period 2002-03 to 2006-07 reveals that, while exports to all the SAARC members have registered a rise, India’s exports to Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nepal have exhibited distinct buoyancy. While India’s exports to Pakistan registered a six-fold rise during the five-year period, exports to Afghanistan and to Nepal also rose three-fold and two and half-fold, respectively, during the period. India’s imports from the SAARC region have also risen from US$ 531. 5 mn in 2002-03 to US$ 1. 5 billion in 2006-07, depicting almost a three-fold rise during the period. Sri Lanka is again the leading partner, accounting for 31% of India’s total imports from the region during 2006-07, followed by Pakistan (21%), Nepal (20%), Bangladesh (15%) and Bhutan (9%). The robust rise in India’s total imports from the SAARC during the period 2002-03 to 2006-07 has been underpinned by the sharp ncrease in imports from Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Bangladesh. India generally maintains a positive trade balance with the other SAARC member countries, and the trade surplus have risen from US$ 2. 3 billion in 2002-03 to US$ 5. 0 billion in 2006-07. Investment Relations The total foreign direct investmen ts (approved) from India to other SAARC countries amounted to US$ 312. 8 mn during April 1996 to December 2007. Among the SAARC countries, Sri Lanka (US$ 153. 1 mn) was the major destination of Indian investment followed by Nepal (US$ 87. 2 mn). During January 2005 to December 2007, 33 joint ventures (JVs) and 42 wholly owned subsidiaries (WOSs) have been pproved in the SAARC countries. Out of this, 1 JV was approved in Afghanistan, 7 JVs and 8 WOSs were approved in Bangladesh, 2 JVs in Maldives, 2 JVs and 6 WOSs in Nepal, 1 JV in Bhutan, and 20 JVs and 28 WOSs in Sri Lanka. Areas of investment approved include engineering goods, electrical equipments, pesticides, readymade garments, cables and wires, plastic plastic products, rubber products and textiles. Total investments of SAARC countries to India have amounted to US$ 11. 7 mn during April 2000 to February 2008. Among all the SAARC countries, Sri Lanka was the largest source of FDI with US$ 8. 5 mn during the period, followed b y Maldives (US$ 3. 1 mn). The investment flows between India and Sri Lanka have increased mainly after the implementation of India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement (ISLFTA). Exim Bank in the SAARC Region Export-Import Bank of India (Exim Bank) operates a comprehensive range of financing, advisory and support programmes to promote and facilitate India’s trade and investment relations with the SAARC region. In the SAARC region, the Bank has supported several Indian project exporters to execute contracts in countries such as: _ Hydroelectric project (Tala project), tunnel house, and dam construction in Bhutan; _ Road improvement projects, railway construction and maintenance, gas turbine power plant project, lectrical substations, cement plant project, transmission line project, and conveyor belt project in Bangladesh; _ Steel, local telephone network, transmission lines, sub-stations, out door LED video system for cricket matches, and diesel fired power project in Sri Lanka; _ Transmission lines and substa tions, optic fibre cable project, hydro electric projects, and irrigation projects in Nepal, and _ Air-conditioning electro mechanical work at Male Airport in Maldives. The Bank, in order to help Indian companies in their internationalisation efforts, provides term loans to them, both for equity investment in their ventures overseas. Besides, Exim Bank lso undertakes direct equity stake in Indian ventures abroad, to enable Indian companies to supplement their equity with Exim Bank’s contribution. To facilitate Indian presence in the SAARC region, the Bank has supported joint ventures by Indian companies in several sectors, including: _ Pharmaceuticals, steel and glass sectors in Sri Lanka; _ Electrical sector in Bangladesh, and _ Engineering goods and textile sectors in Nepal. Exim Bank extends Lines of Credit (LOCs) to overseas financial institutions, foreign governments and their agencies, enabling them to finance EXIM BANK ORGANISES SEMINAR ON REGIONAL ECONOMIC FINANCIAL COOPERATION IN ASIA Exim Bank of India organised a Seminar on ‘Regional Economic and Financial Cooperation in Asia’ on October 5, 2005 as a curtain raiser for the 11th Annual Meeting of Asian Exim Banks being held from October 5-7, 2005 in Goa. The Forum of Asian Exim Banks comprises 9 Asian countries, viz. India, Japan, China, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Australia with Asian Development Bank, Manila, the multilateral financing institution as a permanent invitee. The Forum has an Annual Meeting hosted by a member country by rotation. The Forum was conceived and initiated by Exim Bank of India in 1996. After a decade, Exim Banks of India is again hosting the Annual Meeting. Hon’ble Chief Minister of Goa, Shri Pratapsingh Raoji Rane was the Chief Guest and inaugurated the Seminar. Other dignitaries who spoke at the Seminar included Mr. T. C. Venkat Subramanian, Chairman ; Managing Director, Exim Bank of India, Dr. Ashok Lahiri, Chief Economic Adviser, Ministry of Finance, Government of India, Dr. Nagesh Kumar, Director General, Research and Information System, New Delhi, Mr. Werner Liepach, Principal Director, Asian Development Bank, Manila and Mr. Lamon Rutten, Chief, Commodity Finance ; Risk Management, UNCTAD Geneva. The seminar was attended by the members of the Asian Exim Banks Forum at the highest level, special invitees, a cross-section of the industry and the academia. In his welcome address, Mr. Subramanian highlighted the growing importance of the Asian region in global trade and investment with Asia accounting for 27% of world trade. He, observed that intra-Asian trade at US$ 625 bn (42% of total exports of Asian countries) was not commensurate with the potential that exists for trade flows among the Asian economies and is much lower than intra-EU and intra-NAFTA trade. Mr. Subramanian also highlighted the sharp rise in Indo-China trade in the past few years catapulting China to become India’s largest source of imports and 3rd largest export destination. Giving the theme address, Dr. Nagesh Kumar underscored the significance of regional cooperation among the economies of Asia, particularly considering that the region is home to the fastest emerging economies of the world. Besides sub-regional initiatives in the framework of ASEAN, SAARC and others, broader economic integration initiatives are under way. He argued that there is a strong case for ASEAN, Japan, China, India and Korea working together to realise the Asian dream. Congratulating Exim Bank of India for initiating a decade back, a Forum of Asian Exim Banks to forge stronger regional economic cooperation among the Asian countries, Dr. Ashok Lahiri in his keynote address noted with interest the wide range of issues to be covered at the 11th Annual Asian Exim Banks meeting. While underlining the importance of regional cooperation, Dr. Lahiri cited the example of ADB’s initiative of the Greater Mekong Subregion in which six countries entered into a programme of subregional economic cooperation to enhance economic relations among themselves. Dr. Lahiri also explained the Government of India’s initiatives, particularly the ‘Look East’ policy, to forge stronger ties with the Asian economies for promoting trade and investment. Commending the Asian Exim Banks community for creating a forum for economic cooperation and sharing of knowledge, Shri Pratapsingh Rane, Hon’ble Chief Minister of Goa hoped that the Forum would suggest policies that would provide fillip to states/regional level, economic growth in the larger context of intra-Asian economic cooperation. Highlighting the investor-friendly economic environment of Goa, Mr. Rane emphasised the emergence of the state as a major destination for foreign investment and outlined the various measures taken by his Government. How to cite Presence of Exim Bank in Saarc Region, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Ocean Pollution Essays - Ocean Pollution, Bodies Of Water

Ocean Pollution Pollution in our oceans is a serious problem. According to Marie Wild in her article ?Ocean Pollution?, ?Ocean pollution is one of the major killers of our sea animals.?. Most of the waste that is dumped is plastic, which takes hundreds of years to break down (Oceanic Research Foundation [ORF]). Everyday millions of animals are caught in fishing nets and six pack beer rings. It is thought that only fish are affected from getting caught in these. In reality they also kill birds, turtles, dolphins and seals. The animals are slowly strangled or suffocated by the rings as well as cans, fishing line, nets, kite strings and ropes (Wild). Or, as stated be the National Wildlife Federation (NWF), they die from accidental consumption (NWF website). Garbage is not the only threat to the safety of our oceans though, other things, such as, air pollution and chemicals are dangers too. Ships cause much of this pollution, often dumping raw sewage into the ocean (Ocean Dumping-The Causes of Ocean Pollution; Ed Hunt, pg. 37). Also responsible are the factories that are located on the coast. These factories often, in search of easy disposal, will dump chemicals into the ocean. In previous years major culprits were paper mills and related plants, which would release waste into the ocean. A large increase could lead to long term rises in the levels of water mutagens, pathogens, teratogens and radioactive materials (Hunt 46). An article from ORF, ?Oceans at Risk-Problems and Dangers Affecting our Oceans?, reads: From the land, high levels of pesticides and toxins are being carried to the oceans, dramatically affecting shallow coastal zones, sea grass marine nursery areas, and coral reefs. Over sixty percent of the raw or treated sewage produced by man, rich in nitrogen, is being dumped into the oceans causing eutrophication in coastal waters. This overabundance of nutrients is causing algae blooms worldwide, impacting the marine food web. The red tide blooms (dinoflagellate) have caused shellfish poisoning in humans and mass mortality of clams. Some of the chemicals that have been identified in water tests are; alkylated lead, benzo(a)pyrene, DDT, mercury and mirex. All of these chemicals are potentially dangerous to humans and destructive to aquatic ecosystems (Environment Canada webpage; ?Fresh Water? article). Also stated in the article was: Water is purified in large part by the routine actions of living organisms. Energy from sunlight drives the process of photosynthesis in aquatic plants, which produces oxygen to break down some of the organic material such as plant and animal waste. This decomposition produces the carbon dioxide, nutrients and other substances needed by plants and animals living in the water. The purification cycle continues when these plants and animals die and the bacteria decompose them, providing new generations of organisms with nourishment. Unfortunately there are many toxic substances which are affected only slowly or not at all, by this and other processes. These are called persistent and are of great environmental concern. . All of these things are polluting our oceans and slowly killing organisms that are vital to the environment. There are things that can be done to help save our oceans and if we don't start soon it may be too late. Bibliography none Animal Science

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

buy custom Alcohol and Drug Treatments essay

buy custom Alcohol and Drug Treatments essay Arizona CASA/FCRB Training (2010) observes that judicial systems all over the world, especially in the United States of America have somewhat modest intermediate punishment for offense. Offenders are either offered routine probation that at times equates with obligatory supervision or incarcerated. Because the magnitude of the crimes committed do not fall into two neat partitions, sentencing options often errs in one way or another. The sentencing is either too soft, offering routine probation to individuals whose offenses and criminality call for stronger penalty or supervision or too harsh and putting those whose crimes do not guarantee behind the bars. Due to these realities, states have been encouraged to give sentencing alternatives, which punish without involving incarceration, a consideration. One of these alternatives is the drug courts. Drug Courts A drug court is a special court that is charged with the responsibility of handling cases concerning offenders of substance-abuse by comprehensive supervision, carrying out drug testing, offering treatment services and instantaneous incentives and sanctions. They offer a comprehensive, therapeutic and supportive approach as a substitute to traditional systems of prosecuting cases that involve offenders incriminated with substance abuse. The comprehensive approach gives the participants an all-embracing treatment program that takes into account a collaboration of treatment providers, judge, defense counsel, case managers and prosecutor with the judge working as both a leader of the group and a team member. To promote and encourage substance free behavior, they employ the use of a non-adversarial approach (Arizona CASA/FCRB Training, 2010). Goals of drug courts A drug court has its goals key among them being to stop substance abuse and the criminal activities related to it. They are unique and exceptional in the criminal justice system sector because for they develop a collaborative relationship between drug treatment professionals and the criminal justice (Berman Bergman, 2009). Benefits of a drug court There are many reasons for why drug courts are being advocated for instead of incarceration. First of all they have proved to decrease recidivism and stop relapse that goes a long way in reducing overcrowding in our overcrowded jails. Research and statistical evidence share this fact that drug courts have helped diminish criminal activities. For instance, a study conducted in 2008 by the school of social work of the University of Utah indicated that rates of recidivism for local drug court graduates stayed at a steady 7%. This is contrary to the statistics fromUS Justice Department which indicates that approximately 45 % of offenders who are jailed for similar offenses but have not been involved in drug court will relapse and commit another offense (Arizona CASA/FCRB Training, 2010). The rate of recidivism is yet higher, at 60%, among offenders jailed for their convictions. It is very clear that decreased recidivism decreases overcrowding in jails. Berman Bergman (2009), assert that secondly drug courts helps to save tax-payers money hence the savings can be channeled for other developments. For instance, to treat one drug court offender, it costs about $7 a day. This figure is far much cheaper compared to $50 that is used to incarcerate one offender in a state prison. This can be witnessed by Arizona State which has realized major financial benefits of the drug court program. it is estimated that the total amount that was saved by Maricopa County was $ 129, 347.40 in the year 2001 due to avoiding incarceration. There are significant public health gains brought about by drug courts. According to the US Department of Justice, more than 500 drugs free babies are reported to have been delivered to participants (female) of drug court after being enrolled in the program. Other programs like alumni support groups also reiterate long-term success and provide participants with tools and experience needed to reconstruct their lives (Steinberg, 2010). Drug courts also offer vocational training and/or education opportunity to participants that help to reduce the call for public assistance while at the same time equipping them self sufficiency skills. Lastly, adoption of a life style that is drug-free and breaking addiction cycle has indicated reduced hospital, medical and emergency room costs (Berman Bergman, 2009). Eligibility and qualification It should be noted that drug courts program is voluntary and open to any one meeting the eligibility prerequisites. Offenders eligible for this program must be charged with an offense that is eligible for probation. Secondly they must not be having any prior felony arrests for a sexual offense or violent crime (Arizona CASA/FCRB Training, 2010). At the same time, the offenders should not be having any pending felony charge other than being a legal residence of the area. Lastly, they must be willing to take part in all features of the Drug Court program. Similar programs There is a number of other alternative sentencing/ intermediate sanctions programs (ISPs) that seek to reduce the rate of incarceration. Among them, the most popular one are house arrests, electronic monitoring, parole (intensive probation), boot camps, community service, day reporting centers and parole caseloads (Berman Bergman, 2009). Electronic monitoring and house arrest House arrest program is where by offenders are legally demanded to stay in their residences for the period of the sentence. They may be permitted to leave their houses for employment and medical reasons. This may be enforced by utilizing electronic supervision which entails use of electronic monitoring devices. According to research, electronic supervision is an effective approach for alternative sentence as those who serve under it experience very low rates of recidivism 0f between 11-12 % (Arizona CASA/FCRB Training, 2010). Day reporting centers and Residential community corrections programs These are program that sentence offenders to serve their punishment in small housing facilities that are run by private agencies but with the permission from the courts. Residents are at times allowed to attend treatment and work during the day and go back to the facility at night (Steinberg, 2010). Day reporting centers usually do not stay with offenders overnight. Studies have indicated that is alternative approach helps to reduce the rates of relapse and recidivism. Parole (Intensive Supervision Probation) This is presently the most popular intermediate sanction program. The programs are available in all fifty states of the United States of America because of their success. Offenders who are sentenced to parole system are monitored closely on small caseloads where they normally perform community work, pay restitution to victims; additionally they must hand in random alcohol and urine testing, be working, pay the fee for probation/parole. Researches indicate that the program is a great success and it helps to restore justice and harmony between the offenders, victims and the community. More that 80% of those under this program do not commit similar crimes again (Berman Bergman, 2009). Conclusion Drug courts have offered a helpful mode of alternative sentencing in the criminal judicial systems. Through handling cases concerning offenders of substance-abuse by comprehensive supervision, carrying out drug testing, offering treatment services and instantaneous incentives and sanctions, these courts have helped to reduce the rates of recidivism and relapse. Consequently overcrowding in the jails has considerably reduced and the federal state has saved a lot of tax-payers money. This is as good as saying that alternative sentencing is far much better that incarceration that only seeks to spend a lot of money on some offenders who could have better been subjected to intermediate sentencing programs. Buy custom Alcohol and Drug Treatments essay

Monday, March 2, 2020

About the Roman Historian Livy

About the Roman Historian Livy Name: Titus Livius or Livy, in EnglishDates: 59 B.C. - A.D. 17Birthplace: Patavium (Padua), Cisalpine GaulFamily: Unknown, had at least one child, a sonOccupation: Historian The Roman annalistic [year-by-year] historian Titus Livius (Livy), from Patavium (Padua, as its called in English), the area of Italy in which Shakespeares Taming of the Shrew took place, lived about 76 years, from c. 59 B.C. to c. A.D. 17. That hardly seems long enough to have finished his magnum opus, Ab Urbe Condita From the Founding of the City, a feat that has been compared with publishing one 300-page book each year for 40 years. Most of Livys 142 books on the 770-year history of Rome have been lost, but 35 survive: i-x, xxi-xlv. Division of Ab Urbe Condita Contents of Ab Urbe Condita Libri I-XLV I-V: Origins to Gallic sack of RomeVI-XV: To beginning of Punic WarsXVI-XX: First Punic WarXXI-XXX: Second Punic WarXXXI-XLV: Macedonian and Syrian Wars After dispensing with 365 years of Roman history in only five books (averaging ~73 years/book), Livy covers the rest of the history at the rate of about five years per book. Livys Morality Although were missing the contemporary portion of his history, there seems little reason to believe that Livys Ab Urbe Condita was written as an official Augustan history, aside from the fact that he was a friend of Augustus, and that morality was important to both men. Although Livys status as the official Augustan historian is debated, Paul J. Burton (following T.J. Luce, The Dating of Livys First Decade, TAPA96 (1965)) dates the start of Livys historical writing to 33 B.C. before the Battle of Actium and the year (27 B.C.) Octavian conventionally qualifies as emperor.Livys role in the history of literature and the theater for which see Heroes and Heroines of Fiction, by William Shepard Walsh and the visual arts, especially Botticelli, comes at least in part from Livys moral stories of The Abduction of Virginia and The Rape of Lucretia. In his preface, Livy directs the reader to read his history as a storehouse of examples for imitation and avoidance: What chiefly makes the study of history beneficial and fruitful is this, that you behold the lessons of every kind of experience as upon a famous monument; from these you may choose for your own state what to imitate, and mark for avoidance what is shameful.... Livy directs his readers to examine the morals and policies of others so that they can see how important it is to maintain standards of morality: Here are the questions to which I should like every reader to give his close attention: what life and morals were like; through what men and what policies, in peace and in war, empire was established and enlarged. Then let him note how, with the gradual relaxation of discipline, morals first subsided, as it were, then sank lower and lower, and finally began the downward plunge which has brought us to our present time, when we can endure neither our vices nor their cure. From this moral perspective, Livy depicts all non-Roman races as embodying character flaws that correspond with central Roman virtues: the Gauls are factious and headstrong, and lack staying power; while the Greeks are better at talking than fighting, and immoderate in their emotional reactions [Usher, p. 176.] Numidians are also immoderate emotionally since they are too lustful: above all barbarians the Numidians are steeped in passionsunt ante omnes barbaros Numidae effusi in venerem. [Haley] Historical Evaluation of Livy With history as his vehicle, Livy displays his rhetorical flair and literary style. He engages the attention of the listening audience through speeches or emotive description. Occasionally Livy sacrifices chronology to variety. He rarely explores contradictory versions of an event but selects with an eye to championing Romes national virtues. Livy acknowledged a lack of contemporary written records from which to verify facts from Romes beginnings. Sometimes he mistranslated Greek literary sources. Without a background in practical military affairs or politics, his reliability in these areas is limited. However, Livy supplies myriad mundane details that are unavailable elsewhere, and, therefore, he is the most important source for Roman general history for the period to the end of the Republic. Sources Include: Stephen Usher, The Historians of Greece and Rome The Last Republican Historian: A New Date for the Composition of Livys First PentadPaul J. BurtonHistoria: Zeitschrift fà ¼r Alte Geschichte, Bd. 49, H. 4 (4th Qtr., 2000), pp. 429-446. ï » ¿Livy, Passion, and Cultural StereotypesS. P. HaleyHistoria: Zeitschrift fà ¼r Alte Geschichte, Bd. 39, H. 3 (1990), pp. 375-381

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Report on Diversity day episode Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Report on Diversity day episode - Essay Example Employees are inconsiderate of other employee’s feelings. One employee shreds papers rudely inconveniencing another, who is on the phone. He even goes further to cut off a call from a client. Dwight steals a colleague’s client. Such behavior illustrates the absence of office etiquette. Michael Scott as the Scranton Regional Manager should set a good example and the standard for the way people conduct themselves in the workplace. The Diversity Day training is organized by corporate in response to an incident in which Michael made racially offensive statements. Having everyone sign the Diversity commitment paper in order to avoid embarrassment shows preferential treatment in corporate. There should be fair treatment of all members of an organization. At the seminar, he does not provide a good environment for Mr. Brown, the course facilitator to do his job. Michael also discriminates against black people in the office. He lashes out at them for failing to take responsibility for mistakes they make and blames them for expecting praise for doing what is expected of them. He later extends this discrimination to the Mexicans by suggesting that the term represents something that one should feel ashamed. Role acting about minority communities propagates stereotypes. The role of Michael representing Martin Luther Jnr is an insult to the civil rights movement and the black community he represented. The statement that most streets named after the civil rights record the highest number of violence propagates the stereotypes that black people are violent. The show also suggests that Arabs are violent people while upholding the perception that Jews are shylocks. It is worth noting that several laws broken in the show. For example, the slapping of Michael breaks the law against violence at the workplace. His imitation of Indians deliberately singles a member of the minority community subjecting her to emotional pain