Monday, August 24, 2020

Punk Rock began free essay sample

This statement recommends that Punk Rock was pretty much a political proclamation, which like most, was a result of the mentalities of the time; the fervor of the progressive nineteen sixties had failed and from the weariness developed something totally extraordinary. There are a few reasons with regards to why the Punk development started. Numerous hypotheses propose Punk to have been a crude political articulation for change and resistance (Laying, 1978, Pl Para) while others would contend that the entire scene was simply scripted discussion for corporate greed and moneymaking. Relatively, likenesses can be drawn between the nineteen fifties Rock n Roll period and the underground Rock marvel of the seventies. In addition to the fact that they bare a stylish resemblance, yet additionally their following with the two classifications of music assuming a key job in the uprising of a Youth Culture (Larkin, 1 997, IPPP). As Broodier watched, nothing more plainly confirms ones class, nothing more dependably arranges, than taste in music. (Shaker, 1994, pop).Punk clung to this, as its verses and social mentalities depended on young standards, for example, disobedience, agnosticism, foulness, savagery, sexuality and perspectives towards school (Shaker, 1994, pop IPPP But why? Did the youngsters straightforward look for a business outlet to voice their sentiments and outrage or was everything out of fatigue? Weariness is a common subject in numerous notorious Punk songs of devotion (see Im Bored-Gigs Pop, I Just Want Have Something To Do-The Ramose and Boredom-The Buzzwords, to name a few).Boredom is another quality broadly connected with adolescents specifically, and for nineteen seventies young people the post sixties way of life was everything except exciting yet with the development of punk the seventies carried in excess of a tedious end to the absolute most prominent ascents of the twentieth Century. It filled the void, with a sound so startling and cluttered that you knew-from the principal force heard it-that it couldnt last. (Roomers, 2009, page).While from a social point of view Punk Rock can be seen as an undeniable way of life for the loner young people of the nineteen seventies, a few, for example, correspondent Hanna Gardner from a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, propose that the performers began the class only for cash, acclaim, kicks and chicks, that the Punk Rock wonder was every one of the a put on (Roomers, 2009, pup 207). While the adolescents may have en embracing the rumpled stylish and up yours demeanor of their Punk Rock music symbols, were the performers who were liable for the explode of this whole subculture just centered around getting rich and famous?Malcolm McAllen was one figure in Punk Rock specifically who, some may state, attested this hypothesis with his corporate greed The Sex Pistols and broadly making them split and sell out. McAllen was a pioneering type whose early associations in the Punk scene eventuated to his administration (or creation, as he considered it) of the S ex Pistols in the mid eventides (Savage, 1 991 , IPPP). The Sex Pistols obscured the lines among corporate greed and disobedience, with them having the same number of melodies on the pop graphs as any well known pop performer of the time.Anthems like Anarchy in the UK and God Save the Queen became huge hits in the UK diagrams and before long were heard all around the globe, diverting The Sex Pistols from furious young people who were a piece of the underground Punk development into rich and celebrated demigods. The musicians themselves would deny ever being in it for the cash, however McAllen himself has confessed to capitalizing on the ands fame With stock and even film, giving the feeling that they were more a result of corporate greed as opposed to a Punk Rock band (Savage, 1991, doggy 502). While some notable chronicled Punk figures mentalities turned out to be cockeyed because of acclaim and riches, osmosis into Pop Culture was by all account not the only expectation behind why Punk Rock truly started. For some Punk Rockers, making a reactionary aesthetic articulation against mainstream society was vital and the music was nevertheless a vessel for that inventive articulation of outrage, disorder and skepticism. In Phil Strongman A History of Punk he sees that in certain zones, Punk Rock was seen as to a greater degree a religion than a subculture. It was a methods for bringing individuals of similar standards and convictions together (Pl 3, Para).This asserts the possibility that Punk was made to go about as a political an announcement, a development lead by the young people of an age to call for change and movement. The uniform of the Pure Punk was one that was a piece of the announcement (Strongman, 2007, Pl 2-20). American Punk Rock Pioneer Richard Hell from the dev eloping band Richard Hell and the Voids asserts that the motivation for the Punk uniform dates jack as right on time as 1 959, he himself taking impact from the French New Wave film The 400 Blows by Franã §ois Truthful. Richard Hell once expressed, It (Hells uniform) resembled the child in The 400 Blows, The Truthful movie.I recall that I had an image of those three folks. I truly considered so much stuff in 73 and 74. This hypothesis of punk start as an imaginative articulation recommends that, in contrast to other people, Punk was an all around considered fine art as opposed to only defiance for revolting. Everything, down to what they wore filled need in their multifaceted aesthetic expectations and checked towards the general impact of the Punk wonder. All in all, there is nobody reason concerning why Punk started yet different hypotheses, all of which exposed a component of truth.While Punk stone may appear to be an inconsistency in itself (what with it turning into a business classification of music when it was expected to stay on the cusp of mainstream society) the underlying aims are ones that ask for an upheaval, an adjustment in music, picture, and demeanor towards legislative issues, indi viduals and mainstream society. Like a weed, punk rose during the dry decade between the sixties and the eighties, when the compass was turning crazy, when he skipper had lost control of the wheel. (Roomers, 2009, Opening Shoo. Punk happened which is as it should be.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Capital Aasset Pricing Model and Techniques

Question: Talk about the Capital Aasset Pricing Model and Techniques. Answer: Presentation: Before understanding the relationship of affectability examination to capital planning it is critical to comprehend the idea of capital planning and affectability investigation. Capital planning is a method which encourages the organizations to bring choices with respects putting into a task or not. Fundamentally it assists with deciding the venture that an element needs to make in a specific task and the normal income and salary that the undertaking will create in future for the element. Affectability examination is only a strategy which assists with dissecting the equivalent in detail so an increasingly quality choice can be taken with respects the equivalent. Affectability investigation causes the association to check into different situations and conditions with respects the task on the off chance that the assessments and conditions don't become alright and get undependable. It is essentially changing the suspicions and applying a hit and preliminary technique to the counts premise the changed presumptions in order to discover the normal outcome out of such a change. In this manner as such the chiefs can really think about before putting resources into their cash (Koening, 2015). They can come to comprehend what misfortunes they may need to endure by putting resources into any undertaking premise this suppositions and gauge. The said investigation features upon the adjustment in the information that would influence the net outcome from any undertaking. Change is steady and subsequently varieties will happen to the base speculations and it is this adjustment which the affectability investigation insights regarding. It assists with discovering the most great degrees of contributions to a task. Accordingly this is a factual investigation of the information premise changes in the numbers, for example, amount and costs. Along these lines affectability investigation insights regarding finding the degree to which changes can be made to the information factors with the goal that a definitive outcome stays unaltered. In this way affectability investigation helps in capital planning as a result of the accompanying reasons: Aides in taking an increasingly quality choice and in this manner testing the outcomes in a progressively point by point way. Assists with distinguishing mistakes and in this way attempt to moderate the equivalent Assists with building up the model all the more precisely by identifying mistakes and attempting to discover answer for relieve those blunders. Build up a will sewed linkage between the info and the yield factors. In this manner it is comprehended that the principle motivation behind this examination isn't survey hazard yet to make certain the openness of the NPVs to the different factors which help to compute it. The equivalent is on the grounds that NPV is determined premise suspicions which is the reason the situation where capital planning choices are taken is unsure (Zhamoida, Matsiuk, 2011). It is the most adequate strategy for investigation of different changes individually in the factors and the presumptions being made which would thusly have a course on the income and the arrival from a venture. Idea of Scenario Analysis according to Capital Budgeting Techniques As the name recommend, situation examination helps in considering capital planning choices and strategies by taking unpredictable potential outcomes. The examination is led in a manner which would assist with discovering the net outcome because of an activity or movement under different other arrangement of components, for example, how a NPV of an undertaking would contrast if the swelling shoots up or down. Anyway it is similarly critical to realize that situation ought to be such which can exist in genuine sense and not anecdotal in nature. For the most part three sorts of situations are viewed as acceptable, base and most exceedingly terrible for registering the NPVs of an undertaking (, 2012). It is a logical device dissimilar to the affectability examination which utilizes measurable device. After the NPVs are figured then a likelihood of event of such a situation is apportioned to ease circumstance and afterward the normal NPV and standard deviation of the NPV is determined. This is known as coefficient variety and a CV of 1 is viewed as perfect. Anyway on looking at the two CV premise the situation then the one with a lower CV is viewed as more best than the one with a higher CV. Consequently it tends to be said that situation investigation despite the fact that is likewise a conduct approach like affectability examination yet the previous characterizes the capital planning strategies all the more comprehensively. It mulls over different factors together, for example, money inflows, surges and cost related with capital contributed. For instance an element should contemplate both high and low inflationary factors and register the ramifications of the equivalent on the activities Net present worth. Every circumstance will influence all the previously mentioned factors simultaneously accordingly coming about into varying degrees of NPV. Hence giving the chiefs a progressively definite strategy for dissecting the capital planning strategies utilized by associations before putting into a task. Besides situation investigation utilized in different capital planning strategies assists with giving a synopsis about the hazard related with the different resources wherein the advantages with higher hazard will have progressively unstable qualities and the other way around. Situation investigation involves how much monetary sense does it make in putting into any task for an association. Further by doing the investigation thinking about the most noticeably awful situation also, one can take proactive measures to attempt to diminish the dangers related with the most exceedingly awful situation (Kengatharan, 2016). In this manner on a summing up note one can say that situation examination helps in itemizing ventures during circumstances which are even horrible in nature. It assists with discovering arrangements during most pessimistic scenarios additionally in this manner attempting to consider interest in different undertakings minutely. Meaning of the Capital Asset Pricing Model: The said model is based on the Markowitzs mean-change productivity model where the benefactors who are hesitant towards facing challenge on ventures are concerned distinctly about the profits and the benefits they anticipate from their speculation and the distinction of profits and hazard. Hence the said model characterizes the linkage between the arrival and hazard related with a benefit. It empowers assurance of the suitable required pace of return of an advantage however just in principle. It assists with accepting calls about expansion of advantages or greater speculation protections to a previously differentiated portfolio (Fama French, 2004). The graphical portrayal of the formulae of CAPM is known as the security showcase line. Meaning of Capital Market line: The Capital Market Line is plotted on the capital resource estimating model which assists with outlining the pace of return that could be required to get from an all around constructed portfolio yet relying fair and square of hazard related with the arrangement of the whole market and the hazard free pace of return. It is a diversion from the purpose of block attempt found on the productive boondocks extended towards the arrival anticipated from a venture which is identical to the hazard free pace of return. There lie various contrasts between the two referenced terms. Likenesses likewise exist however the equivalent is not very many in contrast with the distinctions. The similitudes between a CAPM and CML would be talked about as a relationship that exists between the Capital market line and the Security showcase line which is a graphical portrayal of the CAPM. The SML is viewed as a basic piece of the CML in a Capital Asset Pricing Model explicitly when the hazard connected to a security or a speculation is figured. Their relationship portrays the closeness as one shows the hazard related with singular protections though the different considers these individual protections and structures the whole portfolio. Hence execution of a solitary security will affect the presentation of the portfolio too. Along these lines we can say that both these assistance to portray the relationship of hazard with different venture protections just as portfolio all in all. In this manner the comparability is with the end goal that both the CML and SML speculate a straight line relationship among hazard and return. The CML and SML additionally discusses orderly dange rs and portfolios which are without chance in spite of the fact that the SML incorporates the wasteful portfolios too. Similarly as their exists a connection among CAPM and CML because of similitudes between the two, likewise the two ideas contrast among one another for different reasons showed beneath. The CML is a line that delineates the pace of return which is reliant upon the pace of return which is liberated from satisfactory hazard and the degree of hazard for different venture gatherings. Anyway CAPM or the SML line used to speak to the CAPM formulae is a graphical introduction of the hazard and return in a market at a specific purpose of time. The estimation of hazard factors is another contrast between the two ideas. The CML utilizes standard deviation to check hazard while for CAPM the hazard factors are solidified by means of the beta coefficients. Thusly the previous is an estimation premise which hazard is determined in totality while the later tells about the commitment of the security or the speculation towards the hazard on the whole portfolio. CML depicts just portfolios which are equipped and capable though the Security Market Line used to delineate the CAPM, depicts both able and non-able portfolios. While ascertaining the arrival, the Y Axis portrays the arrival foreseen from a portfolio if there should arise an occurrence of a CML and the arrival that the individual speculations gives are appeared by the Y pivot if there should arise an occurrence of the SML. The X pivot of CML delineates the standard deviation though the X hub of the SML portrays the Beta of the offers and individual speculations. The two pivot is very much portrayed in the charts underneath of both CML and SML wherein the even hub of the SML delineates the orderly hazard and that of CML is by and large hazard. The CML sets up the arrangement of the whole market and such resources which are liberated from any dangers,

Sunday, July 19, 2020

How to Manage a Drunk Relative

How to Manage a Drunk Relative Addiction Alcohol Use Children of Alcoholics Print Dealing With a Drunk Relative During the Holidays By Elizabeth Hartney, BSc., MSc., MA, PhD Elizabeth Hartney, BSc, MSc, MA, PhD is a psychologist, professor, and Director of the Centre for Health Leadership and Research at Royal Roads University, Canada. Learn about our editorial policy Elizabeth Hartney, BSc., MSc., MA, PhD Updated on October 14, 2019 maskot / Getty Images   More in Addiction Alcohol Use Children of Alcoholics Binge Drinking Withdrawal and Relapse Drunk Driving Addictive Behaviors Drug Use Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery Situations vary among adult family members of people who drink too much. You might be a drinker yourself, or you may have decided not to follow in your relatives footsteps, but dealing with an older relative who is often drunkâ€"whether its a parent, uncle, aunt, or grandparentâ€"will always feel challenging, even when you love the person dearly. As you get older, you may find that  your roles become reversed. You may need to take care of them and set  boundaries and expectations about their behavior, a shift that will probably not feel completely natural to either of you. Understanding how to approach these situations and conversations helps. Managing Holidays and Celebrations If past celebrations have been ruined by your relatives drunkenness, think about whether you should put yourselfâ€"and your family or friendsâ€"through another painful experience. Your relative might expect to be included in family celebrations or you might think it would spoil the holidays to have a grandparent or older relative absent. But if you know that they will be inappropriate, abusive, or completely unreasonable regardless of what you say or do, you have a right to decline to spend family celebrations with them  and to protect yourself and your family from their harmful influence. This is difficult to do, but you are not rejecting your family member, nor do you have completely avoid them over the holidays (unless you want to). Consider alternatives like: Spending a holiday breakfast with them. Even the  heaviest drinkers are usually more sober in the morning. But also consider how they might behave if they are hungover, and plan accordingly.Visit and drop off gifts on the day before, instead. Choose a time earlier in the day and keep it limited.Mail or drop off a card or gift before the event and say you will be away at that time. Starting a Conversation All too often, families fall into a communication pattern designed to avoid conflict and the truth. However, social stigma about intoxication, fear of your relatives anger, and feeling pity towards your relative may encourage you to discuss the real reason you prefer not to spend time with them.   If  it seems like your relative lies all the time, you may have been brought up to lie  and think that this is your only choice. It may even feel that lies are what has held your family relationships together. In one sense this may be true even though the relationships are not authentic or based on trust. While it is understandable that you want to avoid conflict, ultimately, your relative may be more likely to control their drinking behavior around you once they realize it is driving you away from them. Knowing that their time with younger children is being affected might also give them pause for thought. So it might be worth having the conversation with your relative in a tactful way. Talk to them when they are not drunkBe honest and let them know that you dont appreciate their drinkingBe honest and say that you and your family or friends will skip the party, rather than making an excuse. Declining Drinking Together It is not unusual for drinking too much to run in families. There are many reasons for this, both biological and social. However, you are not destined to be a heavy drinker yourself. Your relative may pressure you to join them in a drink, but now that you are older you have an option. If you know that drinking together will only encourage more drinking,  dont do it. Instead, use  effective strategies for refusing. Treat this situation as you would any type of  peer pressure. Even if you do choose to drink, the greatest risk is when both you and your relative are drunk. Your ability to respond appropriately will be impaired and you may end up behaving negatively yourself. These are the kinds of circumstances where the risk of family violence increasesâ€"although even if your relative doesnt get violent, dealing with their impaired communication, problematic behavior, and poor role modeling can spoil your day. Managing Your Feelings Its normal and understandable to feel angry, upset,  or embarrassed when your relative gets drunk. If they have a tendency to become violent or otherwise abusive, you may also feel fearful or anxious around them or re-experience negative memories from past situations. These feelings are natural and an indication that the situation is wrong, not that you are wrongâ€"even if you are made to feel that you are the problem. Although your relatives drinking is not your fault, avoid any confrontations while they are drunk. They wont be in a good state to listen to reason, and they may become defensive or even aggressive. As alcohol impairs memory, they may not even remember what you said. If you feel you must confront your relative, wait until they are soberâ€"or at least as sober as possibleâ€"and calmly explain your feelings about their drinking. Understanding your relatives addiction  can help you cope better, too. People often drink because they feel inadequate in some way and alcohol can help them feel like they fit in with others. When drinking becomes a problem, they cant stop without having to face the reasons they started drinking in the first place, which makes it difficult to stop drinking. Learning how to better  support your relative  and communicate in a way that wont encourage more drinking can also help. Communication and family support are often very important in the recovery from addiction and could be a helpful step in getting along with your relative and even helping them to eventually face their addiction. Protecting Others No matter how important your relative is to you, there are probably other people who matter to you at least as much, if not more. These people should not be subjected to your relatives drunkenness, and spending time with them should take priority over anyone who insists on drinking. You deserve to enjoy the company of people who respect you and your choices around alcohol, and your other family members and friends deserve to be able to enjoy your company in an alcohol-free environment. In particular, if you have a partner and children, you should prioritize enjoying authentic, low-stress time with them, as this is very important to your childrens healthy emotional development. Conversely, spending time with an intoxicated relative could be emotionally damaging and harmful to your relationship with them, particularly if they experience or witness any violent or disrespectful behavior, even if it is directed towards you and not them. So politely decline any invitations from your relative involving these other loved ones, now or in the future, if you know that your relative will be drinking. Seeking Help Many children who grow up with a family member who drinks too much dream of saving them. You may crave the person they were when sober, or, if you never knew your relative when they were sober, you may yearn for a relationship with your relative that is everything it should beâ€"supportive and kind. Although your support will help a great deal if your relative decides to change their drinking, you cant save them from their addiction. That is something they can only do for themselves, although others, including you, may be important in their success in becoming sober. Letting your relative know how much you would appreciate them quitting or cutting down on their drinking, or drinking in a more appropriate way, may encourage them to think about change, but it may also provoke their defenses and denials. You may even find yourself on the receiving end of unfair accusations and blame, which may provoke your own anger. Generally, people who drink a lot dont respond well to other people telling them to stop. Sometimes, families try an intervention, but responses to interventions are unpredictable and there is no research support for the approach. The bottom line is that even if your relative tries to quit because you ask them to, they may not be successful. However, the good news is that those who are successful at quitting often cite the encouragement and support of their family as a significant aspect of what helped them succeed in quitting. So dont give up supporting your relative in their efforts to control their drinking.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Benefits And Limitations Of Renewable Energy Sources

In the world that we live, the prospects for renewable energy will increase in the European union as a whole, and in the UK in particular, in the coming decades. Renewable energy sources are already providing a significant proportion of the world’s primary energy, and it is likely to be providing a much greater proportion of the world’s energy by the second half of the 21th century. The European Union countries may do something to increase 20% of all energy from Renewable sources by 2020 to the society.This essay will outline the benefits and limitations of two common renewable energy sources, then, it will discuss how the topic suggestion is realistic in the UK context, and finally, what need to be done to increase renewable energy to 20%†¦show more content†¦John Twidel and Tony wair ,2005 in renewable energy resources points out that It has become one of the fundamental principles for policy in the 21st century. The politicians, industrialists, environmental ists, economists, and theologians, are affirmed in the world the principle as they seek international, national, and local cooperation. However, reaching specific agreed policies and actions is proving much tougher! In the international context, the word progress relate to amendment in quality of life, including improving standards of living in less developed countries. The aim of sustainable development is to achieve this aim while safeguarding the ecological processes upon which life depends. Locally, progressive businesses seek a positive treble under line, (a positive offering to the economic, social, and environmental well-being of the community). We know that many changes in social patterns are related to energy supplies. We may expect further changes to occur as renewable energy systems become even more widespread. The influence of modern science and technology ensures that there are considerable improvements to older technologies, and subsequently standards of living can be expected to rise, especially in rural and previously less developed

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Marketing Strategies Used By Jl Racing - 944 Words

When a small business decides to take sales on the international level there are many risks and rewards in doing so. To be successful they should look at challenges that they might incur along the road in addition developing a plan on how to overcome these challenges. Furthermore the correct marketing strategy when entering into new markets is key on creating brand recognition and make the customer experience satisfying in order to generate repeat business and marketing through word of mouth. Therefore, when a company’s research is complete and the best route has been chosen to enter into international markets a small business can lower risk and increase their awareness to be successful. In this assignment I researched challenges of small business conducting business internationally, in addition to discussing in depth the marketing strategies used by JL Racing. Finally, discuss the effects of international sales on JL Racing’s domestic business. There are many challenges for small companies when doing business internationally for example JL Racing had a hard time understanding the buying habits in Europe. In addition to entering into markets to who the customers have already established relationships with other vendors or when a few individuals makes the decision for the whole rowing club in which and sales representative would need to know the bidding process. Furthermore, the difficulty of the owners of a small business entering into business internationally wearing allShow MoreRelatedStrategy Safari by Mintzberg71628 Words   |  287 PagesSTRATEGY SAFARI A GUIDED TOURTHROUGH THE WILDS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT HENRY MINTZBERG BRUCE AHLSTRAND JOSEPH LAMPEL T H E FREE PRESS NEW YORK aJaiz. u.frmiu/i  «...* „.;i†¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¢/ . †¢ . . †¢. »Ã¢â‚¬ ¢.. . .. †¢..†¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¢.-.†¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¢a/itiktSii^i THE FREE PRESS A Division of Simon Schuster Inc. 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 Copyright  © 1998 by Henry Mintzberg, Ltd., Bruce Ahlstrand, and Joseph Lampel All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. THERead MoreState and Local Tax Outline42910 Words   |  172 Pagestaxes is undue burden on interstate commerce. Not so for income. Lesser compliance burdens. Physical presence poor measuring stick of an entity s true nexus with a state in today s business world. 12. Significant economic presence test - test used to determine of whether a substantial nexus exists for CC purposes. Incorporates due process purposeful direction towards a state while examining the degree to which a company has exploited a local market. Purposeful availment is analyzed as it

Presence of Exim Bank in Saarc Region Free Essays

string(79) " to accelerated the process of economic ; social development in member states\." History of SAARC The concept of setting up a regional co-operational in the South Asian Region was first mooted by the late President of Bangladesh, Ziaur-Rahman on May 2, 1980. Before this, the idea of regional cooperation in South Asia was discussed in conferences of Asian Regional conference, New Delhi in April 1947, the Baguio Conference in Philippines in May 1950, and the Colombo Power Conference in April 1954. urther in the late 70s, SAARC nations agreed to create a trade bloc consisting of South Asian countries. We will write a custom essay sample on Presence of Exim Bank in Saarc Region or any similar topic only for you Order Now The idea of regional cooperation in South Asia was again mooted in May 1980as a result, the foreign secretaries of the seven countries met for the first time in Colombo in April 1981. The Committee of the Whole, which met in Colombo in August 1985, identified five broad areas for regional cooperation. New areas of cooperation were added in the following years. Hence the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was created in 1985 with eight member countries in SAARC namely Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. It also has nine observers, namely China, EU, Iran, Republic of Korea, Australia, Japan, Mauritius, Myanmar and USA. The objectives of the Association as defined in the Charter are: * to promote the welfare of the people of South Asia and to improve their quality of life; * to accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region and to provide all individuals the opportunity to live in dignity and to realize their full potential; * to promote and strengthen selective self-reliance among the countries of South Asia; * to contribute to mutual trust, understanding and appreciation of one another’s problems; * to promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in the economic, social, cultural, technical and scientific fields; * to strengthen cooperation with other developing countries; * to strengthen cooperation among themselves in international forums on matters of common interest; and * to cooperate with international and regional organisations with similar aims and purposes. The principles of SAARC are: * Respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, polit ical equality and independence of all members states * Non-interference in the internal matters is one of its objectives * Cooperation for mutual benefit * All decisions to be taken unanimously and need a quorum of all eight members * All bilateral issues to be kept aside and only multilateral(involving many countries) issues to be discussed without being prejudiced by bilateral issues Economic Agenda of SAARC The main economic agenda of SAARC include: ) SAARC Preferential Trading Agreement (SAPTA) The Agreement on SAPTA was signed on 11 April 1993 and entered into force on 7 December 1995. The Agreement envisaged promoting and sustaining mutual trade and economic cooperation within the SAARC region through exchange of concessions. b) South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) The Agreement on SAFTA was signed on 6 January 2004 during the Twelfth SAARC Summit in Islamabad. The Agreement entered into force on 1 January 2006. c) South Asian Economic Union The Eleventh Summit (Kathmandu, 4-6 January 2002) provided further impetus to the regional economic cooperation to give effect to the shared aspirations for a more prosperous South Asia. At the Summit, the leaders agreed to accelerate cooperation in the core areas of trade, finance and investment to realise the goal of an integrated South Asian economy in a step-by-step manner. They also agreed to the vision of a phased and planned process eventually leading to a South Asian Economic Union. Economic Profile of the SAARC Member Countries In Afghanistan, real domestic product (GDP) is estimated to have reached 13. 9% in FY2007, owing to a strong recovery in agricultural production. Industry and services recorded dynamic growth of 13. 3% and 12. 4%, respectively. Construction was the main driver of industrial growth. In Bangladesh, GDP growth in FY2007 (ended June 2007) stood at 6. % underpinned by steady expansion in manufacturing and continued buoyancy in services, on the base of rising domestic and external demand. Secretariat of SAARC The Secretariat of SAARC is located in Kathmandu has been established on 16 January 1987 inaugurated by Late King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal headed by a Secretary General. The Secretary General is appointed by the Council of Ministers from Member Countries in alphabetical order for a term of three-years assisted by the Professional and the General Services Staff, and also an appropriate number of functional units called Divisions assigned to Directors on deputation from Member States. The Secretariat has been entrusted with the function of coordination and monitoring the implementation of activities, arranging for meetings, and serveing as a channel of communication between the Association and its Member States as well as other regional organizations. The setting up of SAARC Secretariat involved inking a Memorandum of Understanding between the Foreign Ministers of member countries on 17 November 1986 at Bangalore, India which contained various clauses concerning the role, structure and administration of the SAARC Secretariat as well as the powers of the Secretary-General. Regional Centres of SAARC There are various regional centres established by SAARC Secretariat in member states so as to ensure smooth working of the SAARC functions. The regional Centres covering Agriculture, Tuberculosis, Documentation, Meteorological research, and Human Resource Development have been established in different SAARC capitals: SAIC (Dhaka, 1998) STC (Kathmandu, 1992) SDC (New Delhi, 1994) SMRC (Dhaka, 1995) SHRDC (Islamabad, 1999) SCC (Kandy, 2004) SCZMC (Male, 2004) and SIC (Kathmandu, 2004). In addition, three new regional centres covering Culture, Coastal Zones Management, and Information are being established. India- SAARC Relationship The countries of South Asia were compelled to forge a regional grouping due to universal realization among the third world countries. – india with her experience of initial efforts to organize the Asian community ; the conflicts in the region welcomed the initiative of Bangladesh in 1980. for an association of south Asian namely India, Pakistan, Sri lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives. SAARC provides a platform for the peoples of south asia to work together in a spirit of friendshi p , trust ; understanding . – it aims to accelerated the process of economic ; social development in member states. You read "Presence of Exim Bank in Saarc Region" in category "Essay examples" – the initial years of SAARC were marked by significant political developments in the world culminating in the demise of cold war ; the disremberment of the soviet union. – therefore, when the proposal for the regional co-operation was made by bangladesh india could not reject the proposal. – as this regional cooperation could play a useful role in india’s own regional policy. – india is the biggest with sharing the borders with all 6 countries of the region. – from politicla to economic level, india its neighbors have many disputes. inida is also having the stable democracy, has a strong military machine, a large scientific technical manpower a vast industries infrastructure makes it different from other countries. – the end of cold war has provided greater leeway to india to promote her perception of south Africa regionalism through SAARC. – india has become the heart of saarc in fact constitutes the major source of both GDP, trade capital flows within saarc/region. – the reluctance of india other south asian countries to turn saarc into forum for resolving major regional disputes hampers saarc ability to deal with many of the south asia’s economic ; political problems. Mekong-Ganga Cooperation : it was established on nov 10 2000 at vientiane in the 1st MGC ministerial-meeting. – it comprises of 6 members countries namely, thailand, myanmar,cambodia, lao PDR, vietnam ; india. – they emphses on 4 areas of cooperation , which are : tourism, culture, education , transportation linkages in order to be solid foundation for future trade ; investment cooperation in the region. Cooperation Mechanisms : – the working mechanism for MGC consists of the annual ministrial meetin g, the senior official’s meeting, 5 working group namely : * working group on tourism (thailand) * working group on education , HRD (india) * working group on culture (cambodia) working group on communication transportation (lao PDR) * working group on paln of actions (vietnam). – with his cooperation india has extended its footprints in asean region under the geostartegic back drop. – india has added powerful cultural dimension to its economic diplomacy by encouraging business contacts between the people residing on the banks Summits Summits which are the highest authority in SAARC, are supposed to be held annually. The country hosting the Summit also holds the Chair of the Association. Bangladesh hosted the Thirteenth Summit in November 2005 at Dhaka as the Chairperson of the Association. India will host the Fourteenth SAARC Summit in 2007 as its Chairman. South Asia’s regional cooperation, international political and economic environment, poverty alleviation, advancing economic cooperation, funding mechanisms, security of small states, combating, terrorism, social, natural disasters and environmental challenges as an agenda for third decade of SAARC was also discussed in the Thirteenth Summit. Enhancing people-to-people contact and cultural cooperation, political cooperation and external linkages of SAARC was also discussed. SAARC member states welcomed the request by the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan for membership and invited Afghanistan as a member, subject to the completion of formalities. SAARC member states also agreed in principle with the desire of the People’s Republic of China and Japan to be associated as observers. The Agreement on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Customs Matters Establishment of SAARC Arbitration Council, and the Limited 136 Pakistan Journal of History Culture, Vol. XXVII/2 (2006) Agreement on Avoidance of Double Taxation and Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters were signed during the thirteenth SAARC Summit The Council of Ministers comprising Foreign Ministers, meets at least twice a year. Its functions include formulating policy, reviewing progress of regional cooperation, identifying new areas of cooperation and establishing additional mechanisms that may be necessary. The Standing Committee comprising Foreign Secretaries, monitors and coordinates SAARC programmes of cooperation, approves projects including their financing and mobilizes regional and external resources. It meets as often as necessary and reports to the Council of Ministers. The Association also convenes meetings at Ministerial Level on specialized themes. The Committee on Economic Cooperation consisting of Secretaries of Commerce oversees regional cooperation in the economic field. During the Twelfth Summit in Islamabad, the SAARC Social Charter was signed in order to address social issues such as population stabilization, empowerment of women, youth mobilization, human resource development, promotion of health and nutrition, and protection of children, which are keys to the welfare and well-being of all South Asians. South Asian States have adopted Conventions on the Suppression of Terrorism (including Additional Protocol signed in January 2004 in Islamabad), Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, Trafficking in Women and Children, and Child Welfare in South Asia. An Agreement on Food Security Reserve is also in place. During the 12th SAARC summit held in Islamabad the leaders of South Asia reiterated their commitment to form South Asian Economic Union (SAEU). If formed, it will pave the way for more ambitious — but entirely achievable — goals such as a Free Trade Area, an Economic Union, open borders, and a common currency for the region. As President Pervez Musharraf said, â€Å"we must expand SAARC charter to discuss bilateral issues at the regional level. There can be no development in the absence of peace. There can be no peace, so long as political issues and disputes continue to fester. †The Twelfth Summit renewed the urgency to deal with poverty in the region. For this purpose, the Summit directed the Independent South Asian Commission on Poverty Alleviation (ISACPA) to submit to the next Summit a comprehensive and realistic blueprint setting out SAARC 14 President Pervez Musharraf’s statement reported by M. Aftab, â€Å"Can Safta lead to South Asian Economic Union? † The News, 19 January, 2004. SAARC: Origin, Growth, Potential and Achievements 137 Development Goals for the next five years in the areas of poverty alleviation, education, health and environment. The Governors of the Central Banks of member states under the auspices of SAARCFINANCE meet regularly to consider cooperation in financial matters. For strengthening cooperation in information and media related activities of the Association, the Heads of National Television and Radio Organizations of member countries meet annually. Similarly, the SAARC Audio-Visual Exchange (SAVE) Committee disseminates information both on SAARC and its Member States through regular Radio and TV Programmes. In the field of education, the Member States cooperate through the forums of SACODiL (SAARC Consortium on Open and Distance Learning) and Heads of Universities Grants Commission/Equivalent Bodies. Memoranda of Understanding have been signed to promotecollaboration with UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development), UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund), UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), UNESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific), UNDCP (United Nations Drug Control Programme), ITU (International Telecommunications Union), APT (Asia Pacific Telecommunity), WHO (World Health Organization), UNIFEM (Untied Nations Fund for Women), CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency), EC (European Commission), PTB (German Metrology Institute), WB (World Bank), ADB (Asian Development Bank), UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS) and SACEP (South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme). Regular dialogues with other Regional Organizations such as ASEAN (Association of South-East Asian Nations), ECO (Economic Cooperation Organization) and PIFS (Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat) are held with a view to promotin g cooperation among sub-regional organizations. The Association promotes interaction on multilateral issues of common concern to its members and has identified areas in which collective positions could be projected at international forums. These include trade, finance, environment, agriculture, women and children, information and telecommunications. Beyond official linkages, SAARC also encourages and facilitates cooperation in private sector through the SAARC Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SCCI), which is a SAARC Apex Body. Other such bodies are SAARCLAW and South Asian Federation of Accountants (SAFA). In addition, the status of SAARC Recognized Bodies has been accorded to professional groups in South Asia including Architects, Management 138 http://www. nihcr. edu. pk Pakistan Journal of History Culture, Vol. XXVII/2 (2006) Development Institutions, University Women, Town Planners, Cardiologists, Dermatologists, Teachers, Writers, Insurance Organizations, Diploma Engineers, Radiological and Surgical Care Societies. The Association of Speakers and Parliamentarians enjoy special recognition by the Heads of State or Government. Achievements Several factors such as political, economic, security and potentiality of mutual economic benefit through regionalism seem to have influenced President Ziaur Rahman’s thinking about establishing a regional organization in South Asia. 15 SAARC’s existence, however, has enabled South Asian political leaders to meet regularly and carry on informal discussions to address their mutual problems. This is no mean achievement given South Asia’s past history and low level of interaction among South Asian countries since their independence. Informal talks among the leaders at regularly held SAARC meetings have led to inter-elite reconciliation on many sensitive issues, producing some noteworthy results in South Asia. The informal talks between the Indian and Pakistani Prime Ministers at the second SAARC Summit meeting at Bangalore in November 1986 led to the diffusion of tension between the two countries on the issue of India’s military exercise, Operation Brasstacks, on the Indo-Pakistan border, and the India-Sri Lanka talks at the 1987 SAARC foreign ministers’ meeting led to their accord on the Tamil problem. As a result of an informal meeting and discussion between Prime Minister of India and Pakistan, Narasimha Rao and Nawaz Sharif, at Davos (Switzerland), in 1992, the Pakistani government took action to prevent the move of the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) to cross the ceasefire line in Kashmir later that year. The Davos meeting was possible because of an earlier informal agreement between the two leaders at the sixth SAARC Summit meeting at Colombo in December 1991. Given this utility of SAARC, can the organization grow or expand its role in the coming decades? The Heads of State or Government during the Ninth SAARC Summit agreed for the first time that a process of informal political consultations would prove useful in promoting peace, stability, amity and accelerated socio-economic cooperation in the region. The leaders reiterated this intent during their Tenth and Eleventh Summits in Colombo and Kathmandu respectively also. The Agreement on SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement (SAPTA) was signed in 1993 and four rounds of trade negotiations have been concluded. With the objective of moving towards a South Asian Economic Union (SAEU), the Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) was signed during the Twelfth Summit in Islamabad in January 2004. SAFTA may enter into force by the end of the year 2006. The Association has carried out Regional Studies on trade, manufactures and services, environment and poverty alleviation, SAFTA and Customs matters. Since its inception in 1984 there have also been serious differences among member countries over the aims and functioning of SAARC. 6 Such differences have been pronounced in verbal bickerings in several SAARC meetings. This is in the face of the fact that closer social, economic and cultural ties (the espoused ideals of SAARC) are considered the one and only hope for building regional cooperation efforts in South Asia in the coming years. Indeed, incr easing rationalization of world trade and the fluidity of the emerging global system has increased trade within each trade bloc and those countries that do not belong to any trade blocs are likely to be the losers. 17 This also provides a strong rationale for sustaining the SAARC vis-a-vis future trade prospects of South Asia. The assumption that peace can be achieved through SAARC without addressing the political problems of the region has neither een able to cultivate peace nor to invigorate the SAARC process successfully. Though since its very inception it has been regularly able to hold Summit meetings yet there have been interruptions in 16 The main point of debate hinges on the Charter of SAARC which does not allow bilateral issues to be discussed at the regional level summit diplomacy. 17 B. S. Shreekantaradhya, â€Å"Globalisation of Indian Economy: Strategies and Constraints,† S. Murty, The Changing Indian Economic Order (New Delhi: Indus Economic Profile of the SAARC Member Countries In Afghanistan, real domestic product (GDP) is estimated to have reached 13. % in FY2007, owing to a strong recovery in agricultural production. Industry and services recorded dynamic growth of 13. 3% and 12. 4%, respectively. Construction was the main driver of industrial growth. In Bangladesh, GDP growth in FY2007 (ended June 2007) stood at 6. 5% underpinned by steady expansion in manufacturing and continued buoyancy in services, on the base of rising domestic and external demand (Figure 1). Figure 1: Economic Growth in SAARC Region – 2007 (percent) Source: Asian Development Outlook 2008, ADB Source: Direction of Trade Statistics Year Book 2007, IMF. Bhutan’s real GDP in FY2007 (ended June 2007) is estimated to have grown by 17. %. This was driven by growth in power sector (with a GDP share of 11. 3% in FY2006) resulting from the commissioning of the 1,020 megawatt (MW) Tala hydropower station, which has been phased in since July 2006. In India, the impressive economic performance of the past few years continued with real GDP growth at 9. 0% in 2007-08, as compared to 9. 6% in the previous year. The real GDP of Maldives grew by 6. 6% in 2007, reverting to its historical growth path after the post-tsunami contraction in 2005. Tourism, the leading sector with around one-thi rd share of GDP, grew by 10. 0%. Real GDP growth of Nepal moderated to 2. 3% in FY2007 (endedmid July 2007) from 3. 1% in FY2006, resulting from subdued performances of agriculture and industry. Real GDP growth of Pakistan continued to remain strong for the fourth consecutive year registering a growth of 7. 0% in FY2007 (ended June 2007). During 2007, Sri Lanka continued to register strong real GDP growth of 6. 7%, as compared to 7. 7% in 2006. Trend in Foreign Trade and Trade Policies SAARC’s Global Trade During the year 2000 to 2006, the total exports of SAARC countries have increased from US$ 63. 5 billion to US$ 161. 4 billion. The total imports of SAARC countries also have increased from US$ 79. 5 billion in 2000 to US$ 255. 3 billion in 2006. Among the SAARC countries, India led both in terms of exports and imports, followed by Pakistan and Bangladesh. Intra-SAARC Trade Total intra-SAARC exports have increased from US$ 2. 8 billion in 2000 to US$ 10. 8 billion in 2006, registering nearly a four-fold rise during the period. As a result, intra-SAARC exports, as a proportion of SAARC global exports, have risen from 4. 5% in 2000 to 6. 7% in 2006. Intra-exports of the SAARC countries were dominated by India, followed by Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The total intra-SAARC imports have also increased more than three-fold from US$ 3. 0 billion in 2000 to US$ 9. 6 billion in 2006. Intra-SAARC imports ere dominated by Sri Lanka, followed by India. Figure 2 depicts the trend in intra-SAARC trade (exports plus imports) vis-a-vis trend in SAARC’s global trade. A comparison of the trends would highlight the buoyancy in intra- SAARC trade especially after 2003, as compared to SAARC’s global trade. Trade Policies Trade liberalis ation in South Asia started with a series of sweeping reforms in Sri Lanka in 1977/78. For the rest of South Asia, the 1980s and 1990s saw substantial reductions of tariffs and phasing out of quantitative restrictions (QRs), along with liberalisation of the exchange regimes. Developments in SAARC Trade Integration SAARC Preferential Trade Agreement SAPTA) was signed at the seventh SAARC summit in 1993, in Dhaka. The agreement provides a framework and institutional base for trade liberalisation and economic cooperation between the seven SAARC member countries. The agreement provides for the exchange of concessions between SAPTA members on tariffs, para-tariff and non-tariff barriers. It envisages four basic approaches to the exchange of trade preferences: (1) product-by-product; (2) across- the-board; (3) sectoral; and (4) â€Å"direct trade† measures. South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) extends the scope of SAPTA to include trade facilitation elements and switches the ta riff liberalisation rocess from a positive to a negative list approach. Foreign Direct Investment in the SAARC Region Private capital flows to South Asia was largely driven by India, which received the majority of capital flows to the region. The total FDI inflows into the SAARC region have increased from US$ 5. 6 billion in 2000 to US$ 22. 3 billion in 2006. FDI outflows from the SAARC region have increased from US$ 350 mn in 2000 to US$ 9. 8 billion in 2006. India’s Trade and Investment Relations with SAARC Trade Relations India’s exports to the SAARC region increased from US$ 2. 8 billion in 2002-03 to US$ 6. 5 billion in 2006-07 (Figure 3). Amongst the SAARC members, Sri Lanka is the largest arket, accounting for 35% of India’s Blue Magenta Black Blue Magenta Black Brief on New Publications SAARC: An Emerging Trade Bloc Exim Bank : Research Brief No. 38, June 2008 3 Figure 3: Trend in India’s Trade in SAARC Region (US$ mn) Source: Ministry of Commerce and Industry, GOI total exports in the SAARC region during 2006-07, followed by Bangladesh (25%), Pakistan (21%) and Nepal (14%). An analysis of the trend in India’s exports to the SAARC region during the period 2002-03 to 2006-07 reveals that, while exports to all the SAARC members have registered a rise, India’s exports to Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nepal have exhibited distinct buoyancy. While India’s exports to Pakistan registered a six-fold rise during the five-year period, exports to Afghanistan and to Nepal also rose three-fold and two and half-fold, respectively, during the period. India’s imports from the SAARC region have also risen from US$ 531. 5 mn in 2002-03 to US$ 1. 5 billion in 2006-07, depicting almost a three-fold rise during the period. Sri Lanka is again the leading partner, accounting for 31% of India’s total imports from the region during 2006-07, followed by Pakistan (21%), Nepal (20%), Bangladesh (15%) and Bhutan (9%). The robust rise in India’s total imports from the SAARC during the period 2002-03 to 2006-07 has been underpinned by the sharp ncrease in imports from Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Bangladesh. India generally maintains a positive trade balance with the other SAARC member countries, and the trade surplus have risen from US$ 2. 3 billion in 2002-03 to US$ 5. 0 billion in 2006-07. Investment Relations The total foreign direct investmen ts (approved) from India to other SAARC countries amounted to US$ 312. 8 mn during April 1996 to December 2007. Among the SAARC countries, Sri Lanka (US$ 153. 1 mn) was the major destination of Indian investment followed by Nepal (US$ 87. 2 mn). During January 2005 to December 2007, 33 joint ventures (JVs) and 42 wholly owned subsidiaries (WOSs) have been pproved in the SAARC countries. Out of this, 1 JV was approved in Afghanistan, 7 JVs and 8 WOSs were approved in Bangladesh, 2 JVs in Maldives, 2 JVs and 6 WOSs in Nepal, 1 JV in Bhutan, and 20 JVs and 28 WOSs in Sri Lanka. Areas of investment approved include engineering goods, electrical equipments, pesticides, readymade garments, cables and wires, plastic plastic products, rubber products and textiles. Total investments of SAARC countries to India have amounted to US$ 11. 7 mn during April 2000 to February 2008. Among all the SAARC countries, Sri Lanka was the largest source of FDI with US$ 8. 5 mn during the period, followed b y Maldives (US$ 3. 1 mn). The investment flows between India and Sri Lanka have increased mainly after the implementation of India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement (ISLFTA). Exim Bank in the SAARC Region Export-Import Bank of India (Exim Bank) operates a comprehensive range of financing, advisory and support programmes to promote and facilitate India’s trade and investment relations with the SAARC region. In the SAARC region, the Bank has supported several Indian project exporters to execute contracts in countries such as: _ Hydroelectric project (Tala project), tunnel house, and dam construction in Bhutan; _ Road improvement projects, railway construction and maintenance, gas turbine power plant project, lectrical substations, cement plant project, transmission line project, and conveyor belt project in Bangladesh; _ Steel, local telephone network, transmission lines, sub-stations, out door LED video system for cricket matches, and diesel fired power project in Sri Lanka; _ Transmission lines and substa tions, optic fibre cable project, hydro electric projects, and irrigation projects in Nepal, and _ Air-conditioning electro mechanical work at Male Airport in Maldives. The Bank, in order to help Indian companies in their internationalisation efforts, provides term loans to them, both for equity investment in their ventures overseas. Besides, Exim Bank lso undertakes direct equity stake in Indian ventures abroad, to enable Indian companies to supplement their equity with Exim Bank’s contribution. To facilitate Indian presence in the SAARC region, the Bank has supported joint ventures by Indian companies in several sectors, including: _ Pharmaceuticals, steel and glass sectors in Sri Lanka; _ Electrical sector in Bangladesh, and _ Engineering goods and textile sectors in Nepal. Exim Bank extends Lines of Credit (LOCs) to overseas financial institutions, foreign governments and their agencies, enabling them to finance EXIM BANK ORGANISES SEMINAR ON REGIONAL ECONOMIC FINANCIAL COOPERATION IN ASIA Exim Bank of India organised a Seminar on ‘Regional Economic and Financial Cooperation in Asia’ on October 5, 2005 as a curtain raiser for the 11th Annual Meeting of Asian Exim Banks being held from October 5-7, 2005 in Goa. The Forum of Asian Exim Banks comprises 9 Asian countries, viz. India, Japan, China, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Australia with Asian Development Bank, Manila, the multilateral financing institution as a permanent invitee. The Forum has an Annual Meeting hosted by a member country by rotation. The Forum was conceived and initiated by Exim Bank of India in 1996. After a decade, Exim Banks of India is again hosting the Annual Meeting. Hon’ble Chief Minister of Goa, Shri Pratapsingh Raoji Rane was the Chief Guest and inaugurated the Seminar. Other dignitaries who spoke at the Seminar included Mr. T. C. Venkat Subramanian, Chairman ; Managing Director, Exim Bank of India, Dr. Ashok Lahiri, Chief Economic Adviser, Ministry of Finance, Government of India, Dr. Nagesh Kumar, Director General, Research and Information System, New Delhi, Mr. Werner Liepach, Principal Director, Asian Development Bank, Manila and Mr. Lamon Rutten, Chief, Commodity Finance ; Risk Management, UNCTAD Geneva. The seminar was attended by the members of the Asian Exim Banks Forum at the highest level, special invitees, a cross-section of the industry and the academia. In his welcome address, Mr. Subramanian highlighted the growing importance of the Asian region in global trade and investment with Asia accounting for 27% of world trade. He, observed that intra-Asian trade at US$ 625 bn (42% of total exports of Asian countries) was not commensurate with the potential that exists for trade flows among the Asian economies and is much lower than intra-EU and intra-NAFTA trade. Mr. Subramanian also highlighted the sharp rise in Indo-China trade in the past few years catapulting China to become India’s largest source of imports and 3rd largest export destination. Giving the theme address, Dr. Nagesh Kumar underscored the significance of regional cooperation among the economies of Asia, particularly considering that the region is home to the fastest emerging economies of the world. Besides sub-regional initiatives in the framework of ASEAN, SAARC and others, broader economic integration initiatives are under way. He argued that there is a strong case for ASEAN, Japan, China, India and Korea working together to realise the Asian dream. Congratulating Exim Bank of India for initiating a decade back, a Forum of Asian Exim Banks to forge stronger regional economic cooperation among the Asian countries, Dr. Ashok Lahiri in his keynote address noted with interest the wide range of issues to be covered at the 11th Annual Asian Exim Banks meeting. While underlining the importance of regional cooperation, Dr. Lahiri cited the example of ADB’s initiative of the Greater Mekong Subregion in which six countries entered into a programme of subregional economic cooperation to enhance economic relations among themselves. Dr. Lahiri also explained the Government of India’s initiatives, particularly the ‘Look East’ policy, to forge stronger ties with the Asian economies for promoting trade and investment. Commending the Asian Exim Banks community for creating a forum for economic cooperation and sharing of knowledge, Shri Pratapsingh Rane, Hon’ble Chief Minister of Goa hoped that the Forum would suggest policies that would provide fillip to states/regional level, economic growth in the larger context of intra-Asian economic cooperation. Highlighting the investor-friendly economic environment of Goa, Mr. Rane emphasised the emergence of the state as a major destination for foreign investment and outlined the various measures taken by his Government. How to cite Presence of Exim Bank in Saarc Region, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Ocean Pollution Essays - Ocean Pollution, Bodies Of Water

Ocean Pollution Pollution in our oceans is a serious problem. According to Marie Wild in her article ?Ocean Pollution?, ?Ocean pollution is one of the major killers of our sea animals.?. Most of the waste that is dumped is plastic, which takes hundreds of years to break down (Oceanic Research Foundation [ORF]). Everyday millions of animals are caught in fishing nets and six pack beer rings. It is thought that only fish are affected from getting caught in these. In reality they also kill birds, turtles, dolphins and seals. The animals are slowly strangled or suffocated by the rings as well as cans, fishing line, nets, kite strings and ropes (Wild). Or, as stated be the National Wildlife Federation (NWF), they die from accidental consumption (NWF website). Garbage is not the only threat to the safety of our oceans though, other things, such as, air pollution and chemicals are dangers too. Ships cause much of this pollution, often dumping raw sewage into the ocean (Ocean Dumping-The Causes of Ocean Pollution; Ed Hunt, pg. 37). Also responsible are the factories that are located on the coast. These factories often, in search of easy disposal, will dump chemicals into the ocean. In previous years major culprits were paper mills and related plants, which would release waste into the ocean. A large increase could lead to long term rises in the levels of water mutagens, pathogens, teratogens and radioactive materials (Hunt 46). An article from ORF, ?Oceans at Risk-Problems and Dangers Affecting our Oceans?, reads: From the land, high levels of pesticides and toxins are being carried to the oceans, dramatically affecting shallow coastal zones, sea grass marine nursery areas, and coral reefs. Over sixty percent of the raw or treated sewage produced by man, rich in nitrogen, is being dumped into the oceans causing eutrophication in coastal waters. This overabundance of nutrients is causing algae blooms worldwide, impacting the marine food web. The red tide blooms (dinoflagellate) have caused shellfish poisoning in humans and mass mortality of clams. Some of the chemicals that have been identified in water tests are; alkylated lead, benzo(a)pyrene, DDT, mercury and mirex. All of these chemicals are potentially dangerous to humans and destructive to aquatic ecosystems (Environment Canada webpage; ?Fresh Water? article). Also stated in the article was: Water is purified in large part by the routine actions of living organisms. Energy from sunlight drives the process of photosynthesis in aquatic plants, which produces oxygen to break down some of the organic material such as plant and animal waste. This decomposition produces the carbon dioxide, nutrients and other substances needed by plants and animals living in the water. The purification cycle continues when these plants and animals die and the bacteria decompose them, providing new generations of organisms with nourishment. Unfortunately there are many toxic substances which are affected only slowly or not at all, by this and other processes. These are called persistent and are of great environmental concern. . All of these things are polluting our oceans and slowly killing organisms that are vital to the environment. There are things that can be done to help save our oceans and if we don't start soon it may be too late. Bibliography none Animal Science